April 13, 2016
English / Chinese
Glossy card stock
Black and white
8.5" x 11" / 22 x 28 cm
1.89 lbs / 0,857 kg
3 lbs / 1,36 kg
This is not only a new edition of my original catalogs, which were issued as 40 page stapled journals in six volumes, but a complete revision.
What has stayed the same?
— The variety numbers have not changed for any types that have been included.
What has changed?
— Clear Times New Roman (for English) and Simsun (for Chinese) fonts are used to make reading easier.
— New Type numbers replace the Schjöth based type numbers.
— The new Type numbers are an example of a Universal Numbering System for Chinese Cash (UNS) which I propose to apply to all coins of all dynasties.
— Reverse rubbings have been added for many varieties that were not shown before.
— Matching Cash are shown together, rather than separately by Style.
— A few Types have been removed as being fantasy issues.
— More descriptive detail has been added for many Types.
— Variety descriptions are now given in tables, with the English variety name first, followed by Chinese and pinyin.
— The one coin of the Later Zhou dynasty, Zhou Yuan Tong Bao, has been included as the forerunner to the Northern Song series.
— The undated coins of the Southern Song series, as well as those of the Jin and Western Xia dynasties have been omitted. These will appear in a new catalog covering them in full, Southern Song Dynasty Cash Variety Guide 2017.
两宋铁钱 Liǎng Sòng Tiě Qián (2000), the best variety guide for iron coins of both Song dynasties, and giving both LSTQ numbers and their UNS equivalents.
— Table of emperors and eras has been added.
— Table of 48 dynasty codes has been added.
— Chinese and tone-marked pinyin texts have been added throughout the catalog. These may be skipped over in reading for those uninterested, but they also provide an easy way to acquire a reading knowledge of numismatic and historical Chinese for those interested.
— Map and descriptions of 89 mints operating in the Song era, in many cases with years of opening and closing.
Northern Song Dynasty Cash Variety Guide 2016 is available starting today. Retail pricing will be posted shortly, so please come back to this page. Domestic shipping within the USA, will be by media mail at $4 a book, but (gulp!) outside the USA the shipping cost is enormous, minimum $25 for a single copy. I am trying to find a POD in Europe to produce the books there.
For some sample pages, click HERE.
May 23, 2011
I started work on this project and got quite a bit of it done, more than the downloadable sample pages show, but then health issues got in the way, and my poor eyesight on top of everything else made me announce that the project was indefinitely shelved. I agreed, therefore, to make the original edition available on request as needed and, in fact, have reprinted a few at a time and sold them on eBay.
Well, my health issues, though not my poor eyesight, have cleared up and so I have begun contemplating how to get the task done. I have started by redocumenting my Chinese cash collection, a vast ongoing project, making use not only of my catalog, but of new catalogs obtained from China, those which I have recommended elsewhere in my coin blogs. These are in Chinese, of course, but the ground breaking translations I provide in my catalog make using these new publications very easy.
What I have found is that the coverage of Northern Song is much better for some of the series in the new Chinese catalogs than in the old Kosen Daizen, which is the basis of my catalog. I have already started using both 北宋铜钱 Bei Song Tong Qian numbers (book cover, right) and my own catalog numbers in documenting my collection of reverse marked Songyuan. In the next edition of my catalog, the Schjöth numbers are abandoned (though still referenced) in favor of a new type number system based on the actual series themselves, combined with the original variety numbers. This can be seen in the sample pages.
I do not use the Hartill numbering at all, since it will not work very well with a full variety catalog. Hartill will work for a non-specialist in Northern Song, but will be very frustrating to one who wants to distinguish and collect all possible varieties.
My latest design concept is somewhat different, simpler and more direct than the sample pages you can look at here, but if interested, you will get a good idea of where I will be going with this. You can download PDF files of the front cover and intro pages, and of the first 15 catalog pages, covering Song Yuan, Tai Ping, and Chun Hua currencies, by clicking the links.
This sample is to provide you with an idea of what is coming, the new arrangement, layout, and type numbers. The 2012 edition will make use of the same rubbings, as well as the original variety numbers, so it can be used with existing, older collections. The new type number system is unique to NSDCVG, but provides a logical and consistent framework. Download the PDF of the cover and table of contents by clicking HERE. Download the first 15 pages of the catalog by clicking HERE.
I think that my catalog, though useful, may in the end yield to the new Chinese language catalogs. Time will tell. Previous catalogs coming out of China on this series were not, in my opinion, as good as Kosen Daizen, but the latest ones, particularly 北宋铜钱 Bei Song Tong Qian (Copper Coins of Northern Song) and 两宋铁钱 Liang Song Tie Qian (Iron Coins of Northern and Southern Song, book cover, left) are worthy of consideration and use. The latter catalog was the one I first acquired, and my entire collection of Song Dynasty iron coins is catalogued solely using its numbering and variety names. There are samples of cataloguing by LSTQ at my Northern Song Cash blog. I have also translated the map and list of furnace locations.
This is the latest news, and let's be optimistic and shoot for 2012.
December 1, 2009
2. When it opens, with the cursor on the image, click the right mouse button. A pop up window will appear.
3. Choose "Save Picture As…" and save the image to your computer.
4. When you are ready to print a copy, make sure your printer is set to "Fit to Paper" so that if the image is too big, it will reduce to fit.
September 4, 2009
I have foolishly decided to start yet another blog. This one is called Oriental Cash, and I will be posting there on subjects having to do with all the cash series that I collect and study, not just my specialty, Northern Song Dynasty. My initial post on Oriental Cash is called Care For Your Cash, and is all about cleaning cash coins. I have recently had several inquiries about this topic, and so I've decided to republish an article I wrote back in 1991 on this subject. Click on the hyperlinks above to visit my newest blog and read about how (and when) to clean cash coins. Thanks for visiting!
August 28, 2009
大觀通宝 Da Guan Tong Bao, because of their exquisite design, are usually filtered out of "unpicked" hoards of Northern Song cash, leaving behind no more than 5 or 6 pieces in a lot of 500 or even 1000 pieces. This has been my experience.
Although there are many varieties of Da Guan cash, they are very hard to distinguish, unless you have a larger quantity. In my reference collection currently I may have only a dozen pieces of this type (not varieties), compared to hundreds of pieces of other reign titles. So, I was astonished to find the Da Guan Tong Bao available in lots of 50.
I bought just one lot and it arrived today from a seller in Shanghai with whom I have done business before. I was very happy to find that, not only were the coins all genuine (which I expected) but as I unpacked them and spread them out on the table, I was able to quickly identify at least six or seven varieties, and there were even about 4 or 5 with reverse marks (one mark seems intentional, like the marks on the reverses of Kai Yuan), and a few slipped reverses, which I have never encountered before.
I was tempted to purchase another lot, or even all of them, to examine for my reference collection, but instead I decided it would be better to just let my readers know about them, so they can be shared out among many. I am looking forward to studying my lot of 50 and I will publish the result in this blog in a few days. Meanwhile, if you want to take advantage of a rare opportunity, click HERE for the link to the eBay listing. There are four lots left as of this morning.
Below is a scan of the 51 pieces that I received today, showing just the obverses. I have not retouched the scan in any way, but the coins look better in hand than in the scan. I am sure that if you are using my catalogs, you will be able to identify at least 6 or 8 varieties in a lot of 50. (In this type, that is a good amount.)
Good luck! Click the image to zoom full size.
May 3, 2009
Xining Tongbao Iron 3 Cash
正字俯宝 Zhengzi fu BAO - Precise characters, BAO "bowing"
Rarity 5a / 9
Weight: 13.2 grams - Diameter: 34.2mm - Thickness: 2.7mm
Xining Tongbao Iron 3 Cash
长子背月大郭 Zhangzi bei yue daguo - Tall characters, reverse crescent, thick inner rim
Rarity 4a / 7Commentary
Weight: 10.3 grams - Diameter: 33.2mm - Thickness: 2.0mm
Xining Tongbao Iron 3 Cash
长子背星 Zhangzi bei xing - Tall characters, reverse star
Rarity 3b / 6
Weight: 11.7 grams - Diameter: 33.7mm - Thickness: 2.5mm
May 2, 2009
The rarity scale used in Liang Song Tie Qian is one that I have encountered nowhere else, and it is only by the kind advice of HKMAL, a collector friend in Hong Kong, that I now understand it. It is based on a scale of 1 to 5, but each number is divided into an 上 above and a 下 below. It can be compared to the scale of 1 to 10 in this way:
In the example rubbing, LSTQ-147 has a rarity of 4a / 7.
This is how rarity will be expressed in this blog for iron cash referenced to Liang Song Tie Qian.
Back to the topic of the Chinese cash rarity scale, I am again indebted to HKMAL for what I believe is a very good schedule of what rarity means in terms of the actual number of extant specimens.
His schedule is put together with not a little humor, and I recommend that you view it at this link. The table to the right summarises his conclusions and can be downloaded and printed out by left clicking the image to zoom and then right clicking and selecting "Save Picture As" to download it to your computer for viewing or printing.
May 1, 2009
Zhihe Zhongbao Iron 3 Cash
长和 Zhang HE - Tall HE
Rarity 4a / 7
Weight: 10.1 grams - Diameter: 34.0mm - Thickness: 2.4mm
April 30, 2009
Here is a map showing the approximate locations of the iron cash mints during the Northern and Southern Song dynasties. This is a translation of page 436 in Liang Song Tie Qian, and the map has been cleaned up a little as well.
Some of the mints have the same names, and to differentiate them I have added another designation in italics. This is just another tool to understanding the complex but plentiful series of the cash coins of the Song dynasty.
Left mouse click on the image of the map, and it will open to full size. Then right click the mouse button and select "Save Picture As" to download it to your computer, then resize it, and print it.
For more detail on the mints, see the previous post on Song Dynasty mints.
April 28, 2009
The original Chinese text for each of the 89 mints is followed by an English translation. There are a very few places where I believe there may be a mistake in the Chinese text, mainly regarding the reporting of dates. Two or three instances of dates reported in the Chinese 60-year cycle do not agree with the regnal years of the emperor. These will be noted in the text by showing them in red font.
List of Song Dynasty Mints for Iron & Tin Alloy Cash
图号, 原地区, 监名, 兴废罢复及铸量, 今地名, 路属
Number, Original place name, Issuing agency, When [the mint] opened, closed, reopened, casting quantity, Modern place name
Mints 1~15 belong to the Yongxing Army Circuit (Shaanxi/Shanxi/Henan)
1 永兴军, 京兆府监, 熙宁四年置, 铸铜钱; 熙宁八年始铸铁钱。陕西西安
1 – Yongxing Army, Jingzhao-fu (Capital) Bureau, opened in Xining 4 (1071) to cast copper cash, began casting iron coins in Xining 8 (1075), Xi’an (Shaanxi).
2 延安府, 肤施监, 又称延州监，熙宁八年置。陕西延安
2 – Yan’an-fu, Fushi Bureau, also the foundry of the Yanzhou Bureau, opened in Xining 8 (1075), Yan’an (Shaanxi).
3 鄌州, 鄌州钱监, 熙宁八年二月一日权置，次年废。陕西富县
3 – Tangzhou, Tangzhou Cash Bureau, opened on the 1st day of the 2nd month in Xining 8 (1075), closed the following year, Fuxian County (Shaanxi).
4 坊州, —, 至和重宝背有“坊”字钱。其州后并人鄌州管辖。陕西黄陵
4 – Fangzhou, [unknown], Zhihe Zhongbao with “Fang” on the reverse were cast at this mint, Qizhou was later merged into its jurisdiction, Huangling (Shaanxi).
5 耀州, 耀州钱监, 熙宁八年二月一日权置，元丰三年废。曾隶邻州。陕西耀县
5 – Yaozhou, Yaozhou Cash Bureau, opened on the 1st day of the 2nd month in Xining 8 (1075), closed in Yuanfeng 3 (1080), subordinated to Linzhou, Yaoxian County (Shaanxi).
6 同州, 广济监, 至和重宝背有”同”字钱，元丰六年人月朔置。陕西大荔
6 – Tongzhou, Guangji Bureau, Zhihe Zhongbao with “Tong” on the reverse were cast at this mint, reopened in the 8th month of Yuanfeng 6 (1083), Dali (Shaanxi).
7 同州, 韩城监, 又称龙门监，元丰六年八月置，元佑二年七月二十一日复置。
7 – Tongzhou, Hancheng Bureau, also the foundry of the Longmen Bureau, opened in the 8th month of Yuanfeng 6 (1083), reopened on the 21st day of the 7th month of Yuanyou 2 (1087), Hejin (Shanxi).
8 河中府, 河中府钱院, 熙宁年间兼铸折二铁钱，元佑二年七月置。山西永济
8 – Hezhong-fu, Hezhong-fu Cash Office, during Xining (1068-77) both value-2 and iron cash were cast, reopened in the 7th month of Yuanyou 2 (1087), Yongji (Shanxi).
9 华州, 华州钱监, 熙宁四年置，铸铜钱，熙宁八年初铸小铁钱，后铸大铁钱，元丰后仍铸铁钱。陕西华县
9 – Huazhou, Huazhou Cash Bureau, opened in Xining 4 (1071) to cast copper cash, in Xining 8 (1075) began to cast small iron cash, then later large iron cash, continuing to cast iron coins in the Yuanfeng reign, Huaxian County (Shaanxi).
10 商州, 阜民监, 康定元年置铜铁钱监，皇佑二年罢铸，熙宁八年复置，铸铁钱。元丰三年前岁铸额12.5万贯。陕西商州
10 – Shangzhou, Fumin Bureau, opened in Kangding 1 (1040) as a mint for copper and iron cash, but closed in Huangyou 2 (1050), reopened in Xining 8 (1075) to cast iron cash, in Yuanfeng 3 (1080) annual output was 125,000 strings, Shangzhou (Shaanxi).
11 商州, 洛南监, 熙宁八年置。元丰三年前岁铸额12.5万贯。陕西洛南
11 – Shangzhou, Luonan Bureau, opened in Xining 8 (1075), in Yuanfeng 3 (1080) annual output was 125,000 strings, Luonan (Shaanxi).
12 镜州, 在城监, 熙宁八年置。与朱阳监元丰三年岁铸额共12.5万贯。河南灵宝
12 – Jingzhou, Zaicheng Bureau, opened in Xining 8 (1075), combined with the Zhuyang Bureau in Yuanfeng 3 (1080) annual output of both amounted to 125,000 strings, Lingbao (Henan).
13 镜州, 朱阳监, 庆历元年九月置铜钱监，后铸铁钱，其间复铸铜钱，岁铸额见”在城监”栏。河南灵宝
13 – Jingzhou, Zhuyang Bureau, opened in the 9th month of Qingli 1 (1041) to cast copper cash, later cast iron cash, while still casting copper cash, annual output combined with that of the Zaicheng Bureau, Lingbao (Henan).
14 陕州, 陕州监, 熙宁八年铸铁钱，元佑年间复铸铜钱。河南陕县
14 – Shaanzhou, Shaanzhou Bureau, cast iron cash in Xining 8 (1075), resumed casting copper cash during Yuanyou (1086-94), Shaanxian County (Henan).
15 邻州, 邻州监, 又称淳化监，熙宁八年置，元丰三年废。陕西彬县
15 – Linzhou, Linzhou Bureau, also the foundry of the Chunhua Bureau, opened in Xining 8 (1075), closed in Yuanfeng 3 (1080), Binxian County (Shaanxi).
Mints 16~22 belong to the Qinfeng Circuit (Shaanxi/Gansu)
16 仪州, 博济监, 庆历四年置铸铜钱，其间曾铸小铁钱，熙宁五年废仪州，因循废置。元丰六年于黄石河铸冶务复置铜钱，监属渭州(甘肃华亭)。甘肃平凉
16 – Yizhou, Boji Bureau, opened in Qingli 4 (1044) to cast copper cash, at the same time casting small iron cash, in Xining 5 (1072) Yizhou was abandoned as useless, in Yuanfeng 6 (1083) the effort was made to reestablish a foundry for copper cash at Weizhou (Huating, Gansu), Pingliang (Gansu).
17 陇州, 陇州钱监, 元丰年间置，元丰六年废。陕西陇县
17 – Longzhou, Longzhou Cash Bureau, opened during Yuanfeng (1078-1085), closed in Yuanfeng 6 (1083), Longxian County (Shaanxi).
18 秦州, 秦州监, 元丰四年二月置，元丰六年八月废。甘肃天水
18 – Qinzhou, Qinzhou Bureau, opened in the 2nd month of Yuanfeng 4 (1081), closed in Yuanfeng 6 (1083), Tianshui (Gansu).
19 通远军, 威远镇监, 熙宁年间置。元丰二年前与滔山监岁铸额25万贯，
19 – Tongyuan Army, Weiyuan Garrison Office, opened during Xining (1068-77), combined with the Taoshan Office in Yuanfeng 2 (1079) annual output of both amounted to 250,000 strings, in the 2nd month of Yuanfeng 2 (1079) casting copper cash was resumed, Wushan (Gansu).
20 岷州, 滔山镇监, 熙宁八年九月九日议置监事，九年五月置。铸额见
20 – Minzhou, Taoshan Garrison Office, on the 9th day of the 9th month in Xining 8 (1075) it was decided to open a mint [in Minzhou], and it opened in the 5th month of Xining 9 (1076), annual output combined with that of the Weiyuan Garrison Office, in Yuanfeng 1 (1078) the mint was moved out of Minzhou (Minxian County), Xihe (Gansu).
21 熙州, 熙河监, 熙宁八年十一月进当二铁钱样。甘肃临眺
21 – Xizhou, Xihe Bureau, in the 11th month of Xining 8 (1075) value-2 iron coins were cast, Lintiao (Gansu).
22 阶州, —, 大观通宝背有“阶”字铁钱。甘肃武都
22 – Jiezhou, [unknown], Daguan Tongbao iron coins with “Jie” on the reverse were cast at this mint, Wudou (Gansu).
路属 23~31 河东路
Mints 23~31 belong to the Hedong Circuit (Shanxi)
23 晋州(平阳府), 晋州钱监, 天圣年间置，庆历元年铸小钱，二年铸大钱，以助关
23 – Jingzhou (Pingyang-fu), Jingzhou Cash Bureau, opened during Tiansheng (1023-32), in Qingli 1 (1041) small cash were cast, and in Qingli 2 (1042) large cash, for the use of the Guanzhong Army, Linfen (Shanxi).
24 太原府, 大通监, 太平兴国四年置，咸平四年为永利监，天圣元年改大通监为交城监, 明道二年复旧, 宝元二年以太原监隶府，真宗时铸铁钱。山西太原
24 – Taiyuan-fu, Datong Bureau, opened in Taiping Xingguo 4 (979), in Xianping 4 (1001) renamed the Yongli Bureau, in Tiansheng 1 (1023) renamed the Jiaocheng Bureau, in Mingdao 2 (1033) the rename was undone, in Baoyuan 2 (1039) the Datong Bureau was subordinated to [Taiyuan]-fu, [emperor] Zhenzong cast iron cash at this mint, Taiyuan (Shanxi).
25 泽州, 阳城冶, 天圣年间置，庆历时铸大铁钱。山西晋城
25 – Zezhou, Yangcheng Smelter, opened during Tiansheng (1023-32), in Qingli (1041-48) large iron coins were cast at this mint, Jincheng (Shanxi).
26 石州, 石州钱监, 咸平四年置，庆历时铸小铁钱。山西离石
26 – Shizhou, Shizhou Cash Bureau, opened in Xianping 4 (1001), in Qingli (1041-48) small iron coins were cast at this mint, Lishi (Shanxi).
27 威胜军, 威胜军监, 庆历时铸小铁钱留河东。山西沁县
27 – Weisheng Army, Weishang Army Bureau, in Qingli (1041-48) small iron coins were cast this mint to be held in reserve in Hedong, Qinxian County (Shanxi).
28 汾州, 永利西监, 元符、圣宋小平铁钱背有“汾”字钱。山西汾阳
28 – Fenzhou, West Yongli Bureau, in Yuanfu (1098-1100) and Shengsong (1101) small iron cash with “Fen” on the reverse were cast, Fenyang (Shanxi).
29 隆德府, 隆德府监, 元符、圣宋、绍圣小平铁钱背有“上”字钱。山西长治
29 – Longde-fu, Longde-fu Bureau, in Shaosheng (1094-98), Yuanfu (1098-1100), and Shengsong (1101) small iron cash with “Shang” on the reverse were cast, Zhangzhi (Shanxi).
30 太原府, 永利监, —, 山西太原
30 – Taiyuan-fu, Yongli Bureau, [see number 24], Taiyuan (Shanxi).
31 绦州, 垣曲监, —, 山西垣曲
31 – Taozhou, Yuanqu Bureau, [no details available], Yuanqu (Shanxi).
路属 32~34 利州路
Mints 32~34 belong to the Lizhou Circuit (Southwestern Shaanxi/Northern Sichuan)
32 兴元府, 济远监, 庆历年间置，六年五月复置。陕西勉县
32 – Xingyuan-fu, Jiyuan Bureau, opened during Qingli (1041-48), in the 5th month of Qingli 6 (1046) casting was resumed, Mianxian County (Shaanxi).
33 兴州(沔州), 济众监, 景德三年置，真宗时岁铸额4.1万贯，天圣三年5.3万贯，皇佑中嘉、邛、兴三州铸大铁钱27万贯，嘉佑后3万贯，元丰元年后增至7.2万贯，建炎二年罢。陕西略阳
33 – Xingzhou (Mianzhou), Jizhong Bureau, opened in Jingde 3 (1006), [emperor] Zhenzong cast annually 41,000 strings, in Tiansheng 3 (1025) 53,000 strings were cast, in Huangyou (1049-54) between the three mint cities, Jiazhou, Qiongzhou and Xingzhou, 270,000 strings of large iron cash were cast, and later, in Jiayou (1056-63) another 30,000 more strings were cast, in Yuanfeng 1 (1078) this was increased to 72,000 strings, in Jianyan 2 (1128) the mint closed, Lueyang County (Shaanxi).
34 利州, 绍兴监, 景德二年置，绍兴十五年七月复置，称绍兴监，岁铸额10万贯，绍兴三十一年6万贯，二十二年并铸折二钱，后铸折三钱，淳熙十五年3.45万贯，嘉定元年铸当五大钱，三年，与邛州惠氏监岁铸额30万贯，绍熙十五年岁铸额10万贯，以救钱引，南宋铁钱背有“利”字。四川广元
34 – Lizhou, Shaoxing Bureau, opened in Jingde 2 (1005), reopened in the 7th month of Shaoxing 15 (1145) as Shaoxing Foundry Bureau, annual output 100,000 strings cast, by Shaoxing 31 (1161) 60,000 string were cast, in [Shaoxing] 22 (1152) value-2 cash were also cast, and later value-3 also, in Chunxi 15 (1188) 34,500 strings were cast, in Jiading 1 (1208) large cash value-5 were cast, in [Jiading] 3 (1210) with the Huishi Bureau in Qiongzhou 300,000 strings were cast, in Shaoxi 5 (1194) 100,000 strings were cast to relieve the shortage of cash, Southern Song iron cash with “Li” on the reverse are from this mint, Guangyuan (Sichuan).
Comment: Liang Song Tie Qian has Shaoxi 15, but the Shaoxi reign had only five years (1190-94). I have tentatively corrected this to Shaoxi 5.
路属 35~39 成都府路
Mints 35~39 belong to the Chengdu-fu Circuit (Central Sichuan)
35 成都府, 益都旧监, 前朝旧监，宋初铸铁钱，大中祥符七年二月复置，铸
35 – Chengdu-fu, Old Yidou Bureau, old mint of an earlier dynasty, Song dynasty began to cast iron cash at this mint, reopened in the 2nd month of Dazhong Xiangfu 7 (1014) to cast large iron cash, closed in Xiangfu 9 (1016), reopened in Jianyan 3 (1129), Chengdu (Sichuan).
36 雅州, 百丈县监, 开宝三年十二月始今，四年正月铸钱，岁铸额9千余贯，大中祥符九年废，元丰三年复置，岁铸额3万贯，嘉定三年设监雅州。四川雅安
36 – Yazhou, Baizhang County Office, opened in the 12th month of Kaibao 3 (970), started casting cash in the 1st month of Kaibao 4 (971), annual output more than 9,000 strings, closed in Dazhong Xiangfu 9 (1016), reopened in Yuanfeng 3 (1080), annual output 30,000 strings, in Jiading 3 (1210) became Yazhou Bureau, Ya’an (Sichuan).
37 嘉州(嘉定府), 丰远监, 景德二年二月铸铁钱，嘉佑四年起停铸十年，熙宁二年复铸，元半年间岁额20.5千贯，建炎三年与邛州相继罢铸，绍兴二十三年复铸，南宋铁钱背有“定”字。四川乐山
37 – Jiazhou (Jiading-fu), Fengyuan Bureau, in the 2nd month of Jingde 2 (1005) iron cash were cast, the mint was idle from Jiayou 4 (1059) for ten years, reopened in Xining 2 (1069), during Yuanfeng (1078-85) annual output was 20,500 strings, in Jianyan 3 (1129) stopped casting cash along with the Qiongzhou mint, reopened in Shaoxing 23 (1153), Southern Song iron cash with “Ding” on the reverse were cast at this mint, Leshan (Sichuan).
38 邛州, 惠民监, 咸平四年铸铁钱，景德二年二月铸大钱，岁铸额7.3万贯，嘉佑四年起停铸十年，熙宁二年复铸，元丰岁铸额7.3万贯，建炎二年六月罢，绍兴三十一年复，岁铸额3万贯，嘉定七年废，后又复，南宋铁钱背有“邛”、“惠”、“正”字。四川蒲江
38 – Qiongzhou, Huimin Bureau, in Xianping 4 (1001) iron cash were cast, in the 2nd month of Jingde 2 (1005) large iron cash were cast, annual output was 73,000 strings, the mint was idle from Jiayou 4 (1059) for ten years, reopened in Xining 2 (1069), in Yuanfeng reign (1078-85) annual output was 73,000 strings, closed in the 6th month of Jianyan 2 (1128), reopened in Shaoxing 31 (1161) with an annual output of 30,000 strings, closed in Jiading 7 (1214) but reopened again later, Southern Song iron cash with “Qiong”, “Hui” and “Zheng” on the reverse were cast at this mint, Pujiang (Sichuan).
39 眉州, 眉州钱监, 景德二年前与邛、嘉、益等州岁铸额五十余万贯。四川眉山
39 – Meizhou, Meizhou Cash Bureau, in Jingde 2 (1005) combined output with the mints of Qiongzhou, Jiazhou and Yizhou was more than 500,000 strings, Meishan (Sichuan).
路属 40~41 样州路
Mints 40~41 belong to the Yangzhou Circuit (Chongqing/Sichuan)
40 合州, 铁钱监, 庆历五年复置，销旧小钱以铸减重大钱; 天圣五年置监铸铁钱。重庆合川
40 – Hezhou, Iron Currency Bureau, reopened in Qingli 5 (1045) to melt old small cash and cast them into large heavy cash, originally opened in Tiansheng 5 (1027) for the production of iron cash, Hechuan (Chongqing).
41 广安军, 广安监, 庆历年间铸大铁钱。四川广安
41 – Guang’an Army, Guang’an Bureau, during Qingli (1041-48) cast large iron cash, Guang’an (Sichuan).
路属 42~45 菱州路
Mints 42~45 belong to the Lingzhou Circuit (Chongqing/Hubei)
42 施州, 广积监, 绍圣三年十二月罢，岁铸额万缗，绍兴初七千余缗。湖北清江
42 – Shizhou, Guangji Bureau, closed in the 12th month of Shaosheng 3 (1096), annual output was 10,000 strings, in the beginning of Shaoxing (1131-62) output was more than 7,000 strings, Qingjiang (Hubei).
43 万州, 广济监, 熙宁年间置，后罢，元丰六年五月复置，宣和六年七月罢。重庆万县
43 – Wanzhou, Guangji Bureau, opened during Xining (1068-77), later closed, reopened in the 5th month of Yuanfeng 6 (1083), closed again in the 7th month of Xuanhe 6 (1124), Wanxian County (Chongqing).
44 大宁监, 大宁监，淳化年间铸淳化元宝大铁钱。重庆巫溪
44 – Daning Bureau, Daning Bureau, during Chunhua (990-994) cast Chunhua Yuanbao large iron cash, Wuxi (Chongqing).
45 南平军, 广惠监, 熙宁八年岁额4万贯，元丰三年增至6万贯，绍圣年间减至5千贯; 绍兴初仅千缗，绍兴十九年废。重庆江津
45 – Nanping Army, Guanghui Bureau, in Xining 8 (1075) 40,000 strings were cast, by Yuanfeng 3 (1080) this had increased to 60,000 strings, but during Shaosheng (1094-98) this had fallen to 5,000 strings, and by the start of Shaoxing (1131-62) only 1,000 strings were cast, closed in Shaoxing 19 (1149), Jiangjin (Chongqing).
路属 46~51 淮南西路
Mints 46~51 belong to the Huainanxi Circuit (Southern Anhui/Henan/Hubei)
46 黄州, 齐安监, 乾道六年四月癸酉复置，淳熙六年前废，南宋铁钱背有“安”字。湖北黄冈
46 – Huangzhou, Qi’an Bureau, reopened in the 4th month of Qiandao 6 (1170), which was a Gui-You year (1153-54 or 1213-14), closed again in Chunxi 6 (1179), Southern Song iron cash with “An” on the reverse were cast at this mint, Huanggang (Hubei).
Comment: Jiading 6 (1213) is the closest to a Gui-You year. I am undecided as to what to do in this case, as there is a disagreement between the two dating systems in the text.
47 蕲州, 蕲春监, 熙宁六年置，乾道六年六月复置; 淳熙二年废，五年复置，嘉泰三年七月废，开禧元年六月复，南宋铁钱背有“春”字。湖北蕲春
47 – Qizhou, Qichun Bureau, opened in Xining 6 (1073), reopened in the 6th month of Qiandao 6 (1170), closed in Chunxi 2 (1175), but reopened in Chunxi 5 (1178), closed again in the 7th month of Jiatai 3 (1203), reopened in the 6th month of Kaixi 1 (1205), Southern Song iron cash with “Chun” on the reverse were cast at this mint, Qichun (Hubei).
48 舒州, 同安监, 熙宁六年置，铸铜钱，崇宁二年铸铁钱丶政和二年铸夹锡钱，乾道六年二月复置，铸铁钱，淳熙二年废，五年复置，嘉泰三年七月废，开禧元年复，嘉定七年十二月废，南宋铁钱背有“舒”、”同”字。安徽潜山
48 – Shuzhou, Tong’an Bureau, opened in Xining 6 (1073) and cast copper cash, in Chongning 2 (1103) cast iron cash, in Zhenghe 2 (1112) cast tin alloy cash, reopened in the 2nd month of Qiandao 6 (1170) and cast iron cash, closed in Chunxi 2 (1175), but reopened in Chunxi 5 (1178), closed again in the 7th month of Jiatai 3 (1203), reopened in Kaixi 1 (1205), closed again in the 2nd month of Jiading 7 (1214), Southern Song iron cash with “Shu” and “Tong” on the reverse were cast at this mint, Qianshan (Anhui).
49 舒州, 宿松监, 见“同安监”栏，淳熙十年并人同安监; 南宋铁钱背有“松”、“舒松”字。安徽宿松
49 – Shuzhou, Susong Bureau, see Tong’an Bureau [for details], in Chunxi 10 (1183) was merged with the Tong’an Bureau, Southern Song iron cash with “Song” and “Shu Song” on the reverse were cast at this mint, Susong (Anhui).
50 光州, 定城监, 淳熙十一年后复，绍熙三年六月废; 南宋铁钱背有“光”、“定”字。河南潢川 50 – Guangzhou, Dingcheng Bureau, reopened after Chunxi 11 (1184), closed in the 6th month of Shaoxi 3 (1192), Southern Song iron cash with “Guang” and “Ding” on the reverse were cast at this mint, Huangchuan (Henan).
51 和州, 和州钱监, 乾道四年置。安徽和县
51 – Hezhou, Hezhou Cash Bureau, opened in Qiandao 4 (1168), Hexian County (Anhui).
路属 52 淮南东路
Mint 52 belongs to the Huainandong Circuit (Northern Jiangsu)
52 真州, 真州钱监, 大观元年复置，铸夹锡钱; 嘉定三年为金所占。江苏仪征
52 – Zhenzhou, Zhenzhou Cash Bureau, reopened in Daguan 1 (1107), cast tin alloy cash, in Jiading 3 (1210) became a metalworking foundry, Yizheng (Jiangsu).
路属 53~54 荆湖北路
Mints 53-54 belong to the Jinghubei Circuit (Hubei)
53 汉阳军, 汉阳监, 绍熙三年复置，嘉泰二年曾废，开禧元年六月复，岁铸额20万贯，南宋铁钱背有“汉”字。湖北汉阳
53 – Hanyang Army, Hanyang Bureau, reopened in Shaoxi 3 (1192), closed in Jiatai 2 (1202), opened in the 6th month of Kaixi 1 (1205), annual output of 200,000 strings, Southern Song iron cash with “Han” on the reverse were cast at this mint, Hanyang (Hubei).
54 鄂州, 宝泉监, 太平兴国二年置，熙宁七年复置，铸铜饯，崇宁元年废，其时曾仿陕西式铸夹锡钱，南宋复铸铜钱，背有”泉”字。湖北武昌
54 – Ezhou, Baoquan Bureau, opened in Taiping Xingguo 2 (977), reopened in Xining 7 (1074), cast copper cash, closed in Chongning 1 (1102), cast tin alloy cash like those cast in Shaanxi, Southern Song cast copper cash, those with “Quan” on the reverse were cast at this mint, Wuchang (Hubei).
路属 55~56 荆湖南路
Mints 55-56 belong to the Jinghunan Circuit (Hunan/Guangxi)
55 衡州, 熙宁监, 为铜钱监，徽宗时仿陕西式铸折二铁钱，崇宁二年铸铁钱; 政和二年铸夹锡钱。湖南衡阳
55 – Hengzhou, Xining Bureau, served as a mint for casting copper cash, [emperor] Huizong used it to cast value-2 iron cash in the Shaanxi style, in Chongning 2 (1103) iron cash were cast, in Zhenghe 2 (1112) tin alloy cash were cast, Hengyang (Hunan).
56 全州, 全州钱监, 元佑七年铸折二铁钱。广西灌阳
56 – Quanzhou, Quanzhou Cash Bureau, in Yuanyou 7 (1092) value-2 iron cash were cast, Guanyang (Guangxi).
路属 57~59 江南东路
Mints 57-59 belong to the Jiangnandong Circuit (Eastern Jiangxi/Southern Anhui)
57 池州, 永丰监, 至道二年十月已未置，康定、庆历年间铸铁钱; 绍兴初并人永平监。安徽贵池
57 – Chizhou, Yongfeng Bureau, opened in the 10th month of Zhidao 2 (996) which was a Yi-Wei year (995-96), during Kangding (1040-41) and Qingli (1041-48) iron cash were cast, at the beginning of Shaoxing (1131-62) it was merged with the Yongping Bureau, Guichi (Anhui).
58 饶州, 永平监, 前朝旧监，太平兴国二年复置，铸铜钱，余见”永丰监”栏，绍兴二十七年七月复。江西波阳
58 – Raozhou, Yongping Bureau, mint of a previous dynasty, reopened in Taiping Xingguo 2 (977), cast copper cash, see also the Yongfeng Bureau, reopened in the 7th month of Shaoxing 27 (1157), Boyang (Jiangxi).
59 江州, 广宁监, 咸平二年五月置，余见”永丰监”栏，绍兴初并人虔州。乾道六年十二月复置，铸铁钱，属江南西路。南宋铁钱背有“广”字。江西九江
59 – Jiangzhou, Guangning Bureau, opened in the 5th month of Xianping 2 (999), see also the Yongfeng Bureau, at the beginning of Shaoxing (1131-62) it was merged with Qianzhou, reopened in the 12th month of Qiandao 6 (1170), cast iron cash, transferred to the Jiangnanxi Circuit, Southern Song iron cash with “Guang” on the reverse were cast at this mint, Jiujiang (Jiangxi).
路属 60~65 江南西路
Mints 60-65 belong to the Jiangnanxi Circuit (Western Jiangxi/Hubei)
60 虔州(赣州), 虔州钱监, 绍兴初广宁监并人，乾道六年复监，绍兴二十二年改赣州。江西赣州
60 – Qianzhou (Ganzhou), Qianzhou Cash Bureau, at the beginning of Shaoxing (1131-62) it was merged with Guangning, reopened in Qiandao 6 (1170), renamed Ganzhou in Shaoxing 22 (1152), Ganzhou (Jiangxi).
61 抚州, 裕国监, 乾道六年十二月甲子置，岁铸额5万贯，淳熙六年废，南宋铁钱背有“裕”字。江西临江
61 – Fuzhou, Yuguo Bureau, opened in the 12th month of Qiandao 6 (1170) which was a Jia-Zi year (1144-45 or 1204-05), annual output was 50,000 strings, closed in Chunxi 6 (1179), Southern Song iron cash with “Yu” on the reverse were cast at this mint, Linjiang (Jiangxi).
Comment: This is another case of conflicting dates. No decision yet on how to handle this.
62 抚州, 裕丰监, 同上栏。江西抚州
62 – Fuzhou, Yufeng Bureau, see the description of the previous mint, Fuzhou (Jiangxi).
63 临江军, 丰余监, 同上栏，南宋铁钱背有”丰”字。江西临江镇
63 – Linjiang Army, Fengyu Bureau, see the description of the previous mint, Southern Song iron cash with “Feng” on the reverse were cast at this mint, Linjiangzhen (Jiangxi).
64 兴国军, 富民监, 又称大冶监，大宝监，置时同上，乾道、淳熙时铸铁钱, 嘉定五年并人汉阳监, 绍熙三年, 磁湖铁务设于此。南宋铁钱背有”冶”字。湖北大冶
64 – Xingguo Army, Fumin Bureau, also the foundry of the Daye and the Dabao Bureaus, opened at the same time as the previous mint, cast iron cash during Qiandao (1165-73) and Chunxi (1174-89), in Jiading 5 (1212) was merged with the Hanyang Bureau, in Shaoxi 3 (1192) magnetic iron was developed, Southern Song iron cash with “Ye” on the reverse were cast at this mint, Daye (Hubei).
65 南安军, 铁钱监, 乾道八年复监。江西大余
65 – Nan’an Army, Iron Currency Bureau, reopened in Qiandao 8 (1172), Dayu (Jiangxi).
路属 66 京畿路
Mint 66 belongs to the Jingji Circuit (Henan)
66 开封府, 京畿监, 犬观元年置，铸夹锡钱。河南开封
66 – Kaifeng-fu, Jingji Bureau, opened in Daguan 1 (1107), cast tin alloy cash, Kaifeng (Henan).
路属 67 京西北路
Mint 67 belongs to the Jingxibei Circuit (Hebei/Henan)
67 汝州, 鲁山监, 崇宁四年闰二月，并陕西、两河、京西十八监铸夹锡饯; 大观四年二月罢。河南鲁山
67 – Ruzhou, Lushan Bureau, in the 2nd intercalary month of Chongning 4 (1105), throughout Shaanxi, Henan and Hubei, and Jingji there were 18 mints casting tin alloy cash, in the 2nd month of Daguan 4 (1110) all were closed, opened in Daguan 1 (1107), cast tin alloy cash, Lushan (Henan).
路属 68~70 京东西路
Mints 68-70 belong to the Jingdongxi Circuit (Western Shandong/Jiangsu)
68 徐州, 宝丰下监, 元丰七年五月，铸折二铁钱输陕，元丰八年五月罢，
68 – Xuzhou, Baofengxia Bureau, in the 5th month of Yuanfeng 7 (1084) value-2 iron cash were cast for export to Shaanxi, in the 5th month of Yuanfeng 8 (1085) the mint stopped working, and in the 9th month of the Geng-Xu year (1130) it was abandoned, Tongshan (Jiangsu).
Comment: Cyclical year falls outside of the Yuanfeng era, and so does not make sense.
69 徐州, 利国监, 太平兴国四年置，主铁冶，元丰时，莱芜、利国二冶官自铸铁钱，岁得10万贯。江苏利国
69 – Xuzhou, Liguo Bureau, opened in Taiping Xingguo 4 (979) as an iron smelter, during Yuanfeng (1078-85) the two mints of the Laiwu and Liguo Bureaus cast iron cash, annual output was 100,000 strings, Liguo (Jiangsu).
70 袭庆府, 莱芜监, 见上栏。山东莱芜
70 – Xiqing-fu, Laiwu Bureau, see the description of the previous mint, Laiwu (Shandong).
路属 71~72 福建路
Mints 71-72 belong to the Fujian Circuit (Fujian)
71 建州, 丰国监, 太平兴国八年三月铸大铁钱，计10万贯; 咸平二年五月复置，铸铜钱，绍兴元年十月置，二年废，四年复置，淳熙二年罢。福建建欧
71 – Jianzhou, Fengguo Bureau, in the 3rd month of Taiping Xingguo 8 (983) large iron cash were cast, in the amount of 100,000 strings, reopened in the 5th month of Xianping 2 (999), copper cash were cast, opened again in the 10th month of Shaoxing 1 (1131), closed in Shaoxing 2 (1132), reopened in Shaoxing 4 (1134), finally closed again in Chunxi 2 (1175), Jian’ou (Fujian).
72 泉州, 铁钱务, 天圣年间铸大铁钱; 庆历五年铸铁钱。福建泉州
72 – Quanzhou, Iron Currency Concern, during Tiansheng (1023-32) large iron cash were cast, in Qingli 5 (1045) iron cash were cast, Quanzhou (Fujian).
路属 73 两浙路
Mint 73 belongs to the Liangzhe Circuit (Zhejiang/Southern Jiangsu)
73 睦州(严州), 神泉监, 熙宁七年置，为铜钱监，崇宁二年铸铁钱，绍兴三十一年废，庆元二年八月复。浙江建德
73 – Muzhou (Yanzhou), Shenquan Bureau, opened in Xining 7 (1074), as a copper cash mint, in Chongning 2 (1103) iron cash were cast, closed in Shaoxing 31 (1161), reopened in the 8th month of Qingyuan 2 (1196), Jiande (Zhejiang).
路属 74~80 广南东路
Mints 74-80 belong to the Guangnandong Circuit (Guangdong)
74 广州, 广州钱监, 政和二年铸夹锡钱。广东广州
74 – Guangzhou, Guangzhou Cash Bureau, in Zhenghe 2 (1112) tin alloy cash were cast, Guangzhou (Guangdong).
75 惠州, 阜民监, 治平四年置，铸铜钱，余见“广州钱监”栏。广东惠州
75 – Huizhou, Fumin Bureau, opened in Zhiping 4 (1067), copper cash were cast, see also details of the Guangzhou mint, Huizhou (Guangdong).
76 康州, 康州钱监, 见“广州钱监”栏。广东德庆
76 – Kangzhou, Kangzhou Cash Bureau, see details of the Guangzhou mint, Deqing (Guangdong).
77 英州, 铸钱院, 大观三年七月铸夹锡钱。广东英德
77 – Yingzhou, Cash Office, in the 7th month of Daguan 3 (1109) tin alloy cash were cast, Yingde (Guangdong).
78 梅州, 铸钱院, 蔡京为相时铸夹锡钱。广东梅县
78 – Meizhou, Cash Office, as with the other mints tin alloy cash were cast, Meixian County (Guangdong).
79 潮州, 铸钱院, 见“梅州铸钱院”栏。广东潮安
79 – Chaozhou, Cash Office, see details of the Meizhou Cash Office, Chao’an (Guangdong).
80 韶州, 永通监, 庆历八年置监，绍兴二十七年七月复置; 淳熙十二年废。广东韶关
80 – Shaozhou, Yongtong Bureau, opened in Qingli 8 (1048), reopened in the 7th month of Shaoxing 27 (1157), closed in Chunxi 12 (1185), Shaoguan (Guangdong).
路属 81~89 广南西路
Mints 81-89 belong to the Guangnanxi Circuit (Guangxi)
81 连州, 铸钱院, 见“英州铸钱院”栏。广西连县
81 – Lianzhou, Cash Office, see details of the Yingzhou Cash Office, Lianxian (Guangxi).
82 浔州, 浔州钱监, 元丰年间置，依陕西料铸当二钱，元佑八年五月罢，
82 – Xunzhou, Xunzhou Cash Bureau, opened during Yuanfeng (1078-85), cast value-2 cash in the Shaanxi style, closed in the 5th month of Yuanyou 8 (1093), opened in Chongning 3 (1104) as an iron cash mint, cast value-2 cash, Guiping (Guangxi).
83 贺州, 贺州钱监, 见“广州钱监”栏。广西贺县
83 – Hezhou, Hezhou Cash Bureau, see details of the Guangzhou Cash Bureau, Hexian County (Guangxi).
84 捂州, 元丰监, 熙宁七年置，每岁额18万缗，停铸于绍兴六年。广西梧州
84 – Wuzhou, Yuanfeng Cash Bureau, opened in Xining 7 (1074), annual output 180,000 strings, stopped casting in Shaoxing 6 (1136), Wuzhou (Guangxi).
85 邕州, 通宝监, 元佑七年铸折二铁钱，政和六年四月重置。广西南宁
85 – Yongzhou, Tongbao Bureau, in Yuanyou 7 (1092) value-2 iron cash were cast, reopened in the 4th month of Zhenghe 6 (1116), Nanning (Guangxi).
86 融州, 宝新监, 见上栏。广西融水
86 – Rongzhou, Baoxin Bureau, see details of the previous mint, Rongshui (Guangxi).
87 柳州, 柳州钱监, 元佑七年铸折二铁钱。广西柳州
87 – Liuzhou, Liuzhou Cash Bureau, in Yuanyou 7 (1092) value-2 iron cash were cast, Liuzhou (Guangxi).
88 廉州, 廉州钱监, 见上栏。广西台浦
88 – Lianzhou, Lianzhou Cash Bureau, see details of the previous mint, Taipu (Guangxi).
89 郁林州, 郁林钱监, 见上栏。广西玉林
89 – Yulinzhou, Yulin Cash Bureau, see details of the previous mint, Yulin (Guangxi).
March 27, 2009
This blog will journalize the development of the new online revision of my catalog, but it will not be the catalog itself. The new Northern Song Cash variety catalog will appear as an online catalog at first, and then later as a printed volume.
The first item of business will be to release in PDF format on the current blog downloadable sorting grids of the varieties as they now stand. The Schjöth catalog numbers will be omitted from the rubbings, leaving only the variety numbers and the rarity indicators. These sorting grids can be downloaded, printed and used to study and classify your collection by comparison to the rubbings. This will not enable you to classify every coin, however, because the variety names and the commentaries are needed when similar rubbings cannot be differentiated, but you will be able to classify at least most of them.
Finally, blogs read from bottom up. That is, they are chronicles where the latest entry comes first. I will have the Archive in the side panel sort earliest to latest, but the posts themselves cannot be sorted that way. Whatever happens, just remember, the latest post comes first.
Please come back and watch the new catalog take shape!